Makalu-Barun National Park and Conservation Area

Established in 1992, Makalu-Barun National Park and Conservation Area encloses 2,330 sq. km. of pristine wilderness (1500 sq. km. National Park and 830 sq. km. Conservation Area).

The park and conservation area are situated in the Sankhuwa Sabha and Solu Khumbu Districts, bordered by the Arun River on the east, Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) National Park on the west, the Nepal-Tibet border on the north and Saune Danda (ridge) to the south.


This is the only protected area in Nepal with a Strict Nature Reserve. The park has some of the richest and most unique pockets of plants and animals in Nepal, elsewhere lost to spreading human habitation.

Stepping up the slopes are a series of vegetation zones starting with:

There are 47 varieties of orchids, 67 species of economically valuable medicinal and aromatic plants, 25 of Nepal's 30 varieties of rhododendron, 19 species of bamboo, 15 oaks including Arkhoulo, 86 species of fodder trees and 48 species of primrose.

Over 400 species of birds have been sighted in the Makalu-Barun area, at least 16 of which are extremly rare. Two species are never before seen in Nepal: the spotted wren babbler and the olive ground warbler.

Wildlife includes the endangered red panda, musk deer, Himalayan black bear, clouded leopard and possibly snow leopard, in addition to more substantial populations of ghoral, Himalayan tahr, wild boar, barking deer, Himalayan marmot and weasel, common langur monkey and the serow.

The Arun River system contains 84 varieties of fish. Some 32,000 people inhabit the conservation area.

National Parks

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Home page designed by Charles Lin 1996
All photographs by Charles Lin 1996